The common punches in karate are the Upper Punch [Jodan Zuki] and Middle Punch [Chudan Zuki]. Kiai [shouting] when delivering attacks helps to release the stored energy, delivering a greater impact on the attack
The word "Karate" means empty hand. Although hands are trained for defense and striking, kicks or leg techniques are also used.
Kata, in Japanese means “form”. It is a system of training, practising a detailed series of movements choreographed into sets of patterns to defend and counter-attack imaginary opponents in different directions and distances. One of the advantages of kata training is that it does not allow the practitioner to attack or defend on their favourite stances or techniques.
Bunkai is the act of analysing and breaking down specific movements of a particular kata into practical defence moves against your opponents. Bunkai training includes training in distancing, timing, rhythm, and fluidity [Maai, Ritsudo, and Magare]. Without learning the applications of kata through bunkai, kata merely becomes a set of dance-like movements.
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Striking techniques can sometimes be ineffective in situations - tight spaces, close-ranged combat and even with certain opponents. Such situations lead to the use of takedowns, sweeps or throws to disrupt the opponent’s balance; taking them down and following up with attacks, such as punch or kicks.
Weapons training helps to improve co-ordination. The possibilities in a choice of weapon is never-ending. For example, if one is trained in Bojitsu, a baseball bat, a stick, a pipe or anything cylindrical can be used as a ‘Weapon of Opportunity’.